Foucs: Nuclear Proliferation and the Near and Middle East


Dr. Gawdat Bahgat

Nuclear Arms Race in the Middle East: A Myth or a Reality?


The essay seeks to address the concern over whether a possible Iranian nuclear program will trigger a regional nuclear arms race. At first, the author briefly discusses some theoretical perspectives on nuclear proliferation and how they apply to the Middle East. This is followed by a close examination of two case studies – Egypt and Saudi Arabia. In the final section, the conclusion is drawn that an Iran with nuclear weapons capability is likely to further destabilize the Middle East but is not likely to ignite a regional nuclear arms race.


Iran, Nuclear Weapons, Balance of Power, Regional Powers, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Nuclear Proliferation



Dr. Mustafa Kibaroglu & Baris Caglar

Nuclear Energy Development and Proliferation Concerns in the Middle East


This paper aims to present the connections between the drive for nuclear energy and proliferation concerns in the Middle East. It presents the nexus between the energy needs of states worldwide and environmental concerns, explaining the reasons why states opt for nuclear energy. The authors then concentrate on the connection between nuclear energy acquisition and the proliferation concerns raised therein. Within the framework of such a connection, focal states are those in the Middle East.


Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, Middle East, Energy Needs, Alternative Energy



Prof. Dr. Harald Müller

Nukleare Weiterverbreitung im Nahen und Mittleren Osten – Im Auge des Sturms?


This essay provides an overview of the current status concerning nuclear proliferation in different states of the Middle East, including Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria, Saudi Arabia and Syria. The author concludes that despite an unstable regional security situation, nuclear proliferation in the Near and Middle East is neither unavoidable nor irreversible, and offers some approaches on how to constrain further nuclear proliferation or a future nuclear arms race.


Nuclear Proliferation, Regional Security, Arms Control, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Syria



Prof. Dr. Anoushiravan Ehteshami

Iran's Nuclear Program as an International Concern


There are at least 4 ways in which Iran's nuclear-related activities can be viewed from an international perspective: First, the impact of Iran's nuclear politics on the domestic political environment; second, the consequences of Iran's program for international efforts to contain proliferation; third, the implications of the program as it is constructed for the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT); and finally, the possible impact of the program on the international perception of Iran. The author deals with all these issues before reaching some overarching conclusions about Iran's nuclear program, its future direction, and its consequences for regional and international security.


Iran, Nuclear Program, International Security, Regional Security, NPT, Nuclear Proliferation



Dr. Karsten J. Frey

Why Rebel? Iran and the Future of the International Nonproliferation Regime


The main task of this paper is to place the current nuclear crisis in Iran in the context of the ongoing debate on how to limit the global spread of nuclear weapons. It starts by outlining the main institutional pillars of the international nonproliferation regime, and exploring the way this regime is challenged by Iran. It explores the difficulties of the regime's cornerstone, the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), to accommodate the aspirations and concerns which account for the dynamics of Iran's nuclear course. Finally, this paper provides possible ways to overcome existing shortcomings of the regime and to increase its efficiency in dealing with nuclear crises such as the ongoing dispute over Iran's nuclear program.


Iran, Nonproliferation Regime, NPT, Nuclear Proliferation, International Regimes, IAEA, Nuclear Energy



Robert Marbro, CBE

Middle East Oil: Some Issues


The Middle East occupies an important place in the structure and markets of the world petroleum industry. This paper offers an overview of the issues regarding oil in the Middle East, providing some important data and facts in fields such as production and exports, reserves and surplus capacity. Finally, the author analyses the potential for power politics that result from the high disposability of petroleum, and gives an insight into the efforts of respective countries to develop a self-sustained economy.


Oil, Middle East, Oil Production, Oil Export, Economical Diversification